International criminal tribunals have been created to redress the harm done to millions of victims as a result of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, to provide reparations, and to act as a deterrent. Vested with the authority to proceed when nations are unable to effectively adjudicate matters internally and when efforts at diplomacy have failed are the International Criminal Court (ICC), and ad hoc and hybrid courts. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) can handle civil matters brought by one member nation against another. The establishment of these courts is a milestone in the history of mankind.
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